POPULATION & ENVIRONMENT LINKAGES SERVICE
Biodiversity -
Biodiversity Policies, Treaties & Programs
Last updated: 04/13/00
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National Library for the Environment
 
The Convention on Biological Diversity Secretariat provides materials on   the implementation of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (Text, History & Background, Ratification List).

Type of Resource Book
Title Human Population, Biodiversity and Protected Areas: Science and Policy Issues
Author Edited by Victoria Dompka
Affiliation The Population and Sustainable Development Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science
Url http://www.aaas.org/international/psd/biodint.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract This book (full text available) is the product of a meeting held in April 1995 attended by representatives from 14 countries to discuss the human population's impact on biological diversity in protected areas. Includes: [1] Introduction, [2] Recommendations, [3] Overview Papers (I, II, III), [4] Case Studies (India, Kenya, Indonesia, Equador, U.S.A, Columbia), [5] Discussants (I, II)

Type of Resource Treaty Chapter + Report Chapter
Title Agenda 21: Chapter 15. Conservation of biological diversity
Earth Summit +5: Chapter 15. Conservation of biological diversity
Author United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Affiliation United Nations
Url http://www.cnie.org/agenda21/a21-15.htm (Treaty Text)
http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/EPdirect/EPre0034.htm (Report Chapter)
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Text of Chapter 15 of the Treaty adopted at the 1992 United Nations Confrence on Environment and Development (UNCED - the "Earth Summit") in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plus, a chapter of a 1997 UN report looking at progress five years later.

Type of Resource 4 Reports
Title Biodiversity Conservation
Author Various
Affiliation U.S. Agency for International Development
Url http://www.info.usaid.gov/environment/greencom/pubs2.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Reports on biodiversity and development issues in specific countries.
  1. School/Community Links in Environmental Education, A Review of the factors of success in the Chongololo Clubs of Zambia, by Bruce K. Downie, 1998. 41 pgs.
  2. Forest Management by Nepali Communities, by New Era, 1997. 129 pgs.
  3. Participation in the Aprovechamiento Program and Turtle Protection Behaviors in the Buffer Zone of the La Flor Refuge, Nicaragua: Exploratory Qualitative Study, by Orlando Hernández, Reva Schwartz, Efren Martin Pineda, Meg Braddock, Silvia Rurh Hernandez, 1997. 44 pgs.
  4. Making Biodiversity Happen: The Role of Environmental Education and Communication, by Pat Foster-Turley, 1996. 30 pgs.

Type of Resource 23 Nontechnical Reports
Title Briefing Reports on Issues Related to Biodiversity
Author Various
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/pop/BioPol.htm
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract Reports are produced as nonpartisan briefing documents for the U.S. Congress.

Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy (11/23/98~15 p.)
Endangered Species List Revisions:A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting (1/5/98~22p.)
Reintroduction of Wolves (8/1/97~5p.).
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund (5/2/97~5p.)
Endangered Species Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 & H.R.2351 (3/3/98~50p.)
Biosphere Reserves: Fact Sheet (9/19/97 ~ 2 p.)
African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE (8/5/97 ~ 7 p.)
Dolphin Protection and Tuna Seining (8/29/97 ~ 16 p.)
The Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Federal Protection and Habitat Conservation Plans (7/22/97~4p.)
International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties (11/5/96 ~ 4 p.)
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (9/5/96 ~ 15 p.)
Federal Agency Programs in Living Aquatic Resources and Aquatic Habitat Protection (8/15/95 ~ 102 p.)
Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision (7/6/95 ~ 2 p.)
Biological Diversity Treaty: Fact Sheet (5/16/95 ~ 2 p.)
Biological Diversity: Issues Related to the Convention on Biodiversity (5/15/95 ~ 6 p.)
The Northern Right Whale (4/14/95 ~ 5 p.)
Ecosystem Management Tools and Techniques: Proceedings of a CRS Workshop (3/27/95 ~ 64 p.)
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Living Resources Provisions (12/19/94 ~ 6 p.)
Marine Mammal Protection Act: Amendments of 1994 (9/28/94 ~ 9 p.)
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future (8/24/94 ~ 14 p.)
Ecosystem Management, Federal Agency Activities (4/19/94 ~ 124 p)
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definition and Use (7/14/93 ~ 9 p.)
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property: A Legal Primer (3/7/93 ~ 21 p.)
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definitions and Biological Realities (12/15/92 ~ 5 p.)


Type of Resource Policy Report
Title Biosphere Reserves: Fact Sheet
Author Susan R. Fletcher
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/biodv-15.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1996 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress (~2p.) "Since 1972, the United States has participated in the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). As part of the U.S. MAB program, 47 biosphere reserves have been established in the United States. These sites are part of a network of 324 such areas worldwide in which scientists conduct research and communicate about their findings. Biosphere reserves are nominated by the country in which they are located, and no change in jurisdiction or sovereignty occurs as a result. However, controversy has arisen over the past 3 years over the connection to the United Nations and fears by some commentators and organizations that U.S. sovereignty may be affected."

Type of Resource Policy Report
Title International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties
Author Susan R. Fletcher
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/pop/crs6.htm
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1996 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress (~4 p.) on major global treaties on the environment. Includes CITES, Biological Diversity Convention, Vienna Convention, Montreal Protocol, Basel Convention, Convention of Climate Change, Marpol, London Dumping Convention, Convention on the Law of the Sea, International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, Agreements at the 1992 Earth Summit (Agenda 21, earth Charter, Forestry Principles), and Convention to Combat Desertification.

Type of Resource Bibliography
Title Sustainable Development/Economics-Biodiversity and Wildlife Management Bibliography
Author Tom Tietenberg
Affiliation Colby College
Url http://www.colby.edu/personal/thtieten/biomgmt.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract A bibliography on biodiversity and wildlife management. The references are primarily for journals and books. They cover such topics as: extinction and market forces, conservation, tourism and coexistence. Specific area/countries referred to include: US, tropics, Zimbabwe, Africa, Kenya and Nigeria.

Type of Resource 19 Articles + Photographs + Glossary
Title Various (see below)
Author World Resources Institute
Affiliation World Resources Institute
Url http://www.wri.org/biodiv/us-laws.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Information from a U.S.-based environmental think tank which describe different aspects of the issue, its programs, and related sites
  1. What is Biodiversity? (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  2. Natural Resources and Biodiversity (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  3. Genetic diversity (Variation Within Species, Problems of Genetic Uniformity,   Understanding Genetic Diversity, Related Links, Source)
  4. Ecosystems and habitats (Elements and Interactions, Ecological Processes,  Ecological Dynamics, Related Links, Source)
  5. The Diversity of Life -- genes, species, and ecosystems
  6. Convention on Biodiversity (Background, WRI Activities at the CBD COP4,  Key Articles and Themes, Supporting the Convention, Related Sites)
  7. Global Biodiversity Forum (GBF Information On-Line, Virtual Global Biodiversity Forum, Background and Purpose, Advisory Mechanism, Contact Information)
  8. Global Biodiversity Strategy (Background, Summary, Strategy information on-line,   Related Links)
  9. Cultural diversity (Cultural and Biological Diversity, Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, Loss of Nature, Loss of Culture, Related Links)
  10. Forest resources
  11. Coastal and marine resources (Biodiversity in Marine Ecosystems, Marine Species Richness and Conservation, Marine Biodiversity, Photos of Coral Reef Species, Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs, Pressures on Marine Biodiversity, Sustainable Marine Resource Management, Drowning the National Heritage: Climate Change and U.S. Coastal Biodiversity, Coastlines at Risk, Tools for Protecting Marine Biodiversity, Information on Coral Reefs: Improving our Knowledge Base)
  12. Bioregional management (Defining a Bioregion, Elements and Dynamics of a Bioregion, Related Links, Source)
  13. Threats to Biodiversity (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  14. Conservation Guidelines (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  15. Agenda 21: Biological Diversity (Overview, Policy Opportunities, References, Other Sources of Information, PDF Version)
  16. Endangered Species Act (Listing Endangered Species, Protecting Endangered Species, Internet Resources)
  17. Federal Laws of the United States Relating to Biodiversity Conservation includes a list of U.S. Biodiversity Laws.
  18. International Environmental Agreements and Conventions
  19. Biological Diversity: What it is and Why it is Important
  20. Biodiversity Glossary of Terms

Type of Resource Nontechnical Report
Title The Listing of a Species: Legal Definitions and Biological Realities
Author M. Lynne Corn
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/biodv-10.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1992 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) controversy has been fueled by the discrepancies between two sets of legal definitions and the subtle biological realities that they approximate.
"First, the ESA offers different levels of protection to vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals), invertebrates (all other members of the Animal Kingdom), and plants. Some environmentalists have reacted against these differences by pressing for ecosystem protection in cases like the northern spotted owl, and arguing that recoveries could be more successful if all organisms were given equal protection.
Second, the Act defines populations and species without highlighting the subtleties of their distinctions or the difficulty of their determination. As a result, several complicated issues have arisen about the protection of organisms like the marbled murrelet and Florida panther. The distinctions among vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants, and between populations and species will be important issues in the ESA reauthorization debates."

Type of Resource Statement
Title Population & Habitat: Why International Population Assistance is America's Best Option for Helping End the Global Decline of Birds and Other Wildlife
Author National Audubon Society
Affiliation National Audubon Society
Url http://www.earthnet.net/~popnet/pophab.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Statement by U.S.-based environmental advocacy group

Type of Resource Nontechnical Report
Title Endangered Species: Continuing Controversy
Author M. Lynne Corn
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/biodv-1.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1998 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress. "The 1973 Endangered Species Act began as a comprehensive attempt to protect all species and to consider habitat protection as an integral part of that effort. It is administered primarily by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), but also the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for certain marine species. Under the ESA, certain species of plants and animals (both vertebrate and invertebrate) are listed as either "endangered" or "threatened" according to assessments of the risk of their extinction. Once a species is listed, powerful legal tools are available to aid the recovery of the species and the protection of its habitat. As of May 31, 1998, 1,707 species of animals and plants (of which 1,136 occur in the United States and its territories) had been listed as either endangered or threatened. Of the U.S. species, 754 were covered in 485 recovery plans. The authorization for funding under ESA expired on Oct. 1, 1992, though Congress has appropriated funds in each succeeding fiscal year."

Type of Resource Nontechnical Report
Title Habitat Modification and the Endangered Species Act: The Sweet Home Decision
Author Pamela Baldwin
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/biodv-9.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1995 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress. "On June 29, 1995, the Supreme Court in a 6-3 decision in Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon upheld the regulation of the Fish and Wildlife Service defining "harm" for purposes of the "take" prohibitions of the Endangered Species Act. The regulation includes significant habitat modification within the meaning of "harm." . . . The Endangered Species Act prohibits the "take" of endangered species and threatened species that are by regulation given similar protection. "Take" is defined in the Act as "to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct."(4) There is no additional statutory elaboration on the meaning of take. Beginning in 1975, the Secretary of Interior, through the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, promulgated regulations that, among other things, defined "harm": Harm in the definition of 'take' in the Act means an act which actually kills or injures wildlife. Such act may include significant habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering."

Type of Resource Article
Title Balancing Population and Conservation
Author Gordon S. Binder
Affiliation World Wildlife Fund.
Url http://www.worldwildlife.org/new/issues/pop.html        (Temporarily Unavailable)
Peer Review No
Abstract Article describes the relationship of population issues to conversvation programs implemented by the U.S.-based organization World Wildlife Fund.