Population & Environment Linkages
Overview Materials
Last updated: 04/06/00

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National Library for the Environment
Marking a World of Six Billion - A Collection of Resources
A compilation of online population resources from around the world, including the United Nations Population Fund and respected research organizations.

Report of the Hague Forum on ICPD+5 is a Febraury 1999 update on progress made toward implementing the Programme of Action adopted at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt.

Earth Summit+5: progress on the road from Rio  is a June 1997 update on the progress made toward implementing Agenda 21 which was adopted at the 1992 United Nations Confrence on Environment and Development (UNCED - the "Earth Summit") in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Type of Resource Report, Fact Sheet, Data Files
Title People in the Balance: Population and Natural Resources at the Turn of the Millennium
Author Robert Engelman, Richard P. Cincotta, Bonnie Dye, Tom Gardner-Outlaw, Jennifer Wisnewski
Affiliation Population Action International
URL http://www.populationaction.org/balance/
Peer Review Independent review
Abstract August, 2000 review of  "key data on population growth and the state of critical natural resources as the millennium turns." Sections on:

Type of Resource 7 Chapters of a Book + Appendices
Title The Third Revolution: Population, Environment and a Sustainable World
Author Paul Harrison
Affiliation Independent Writer
URL http://www.cnie.org/pop/3rev/execsum.htm
Peer Review Unknown
Abstract Book published in 1992 by Penguin Books and awarded a Population Institute Global Media Award. The book provides a general overview of the entire subject of population and environment linkages with many sections devoted to examples around the world. the book argues that two past revolutions in the relationship between the human population and its environment - agricultural and industrial revolutions - will be followed by a third; a transition to sustainability. Included here the full text of a portion of the book including:

Type of Resource Treaty Text
Title International Conference on Population and Development: Programme of Action
Author United Nations
URL http://www.cnie.org/pop/icpd/
Peer Review Negotiation Review Process
Abstract This Programme of Action was the result of the 1992 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt.  The chapters of the Programme of Action address various aspects of the relationship between population and environment. Includes:
  1. Preamble
  2. Principles
  3. Interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth and sustainable Development
  4. Gender equality, equity and empowerment of women
  5. The family, its roles, rights, composition and structure
  6. Population growth and structure
  7. Reproductive rights and reproductive health
  8. Health, morbidity and mortality
  9. Population distribution, urbanization and internal migration
  10. International migration
  11. Population, development and education
  12. Technology, research and development
  13. National Action
  14. International cooperation
  15. Partnership with the non-governmental sector
  16. Follow-up to the conference

Type of Resource Report
Title High Stakes: The United States, Global Population and Our Common Future
Author Laurie Ann Mazur
Affiliation The Rockefeller Foundation
URL http://www.rockfound.org/reports/highstakes/highstak.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "For years, the debate about population growth has generated more heat than light. It is a debate that ricochets between extremes: threats of imminent doom on one hand and blithe assurances that all is well on the other. . . . High Stakes: The United States, Global Population and Our Common Future seeks to transcend this polarized, and too often politicized, debate, and illuminate the best current thinking about population growth and related issues of health and development." Includes

Type of Resource Report Chapter
Title Population and the Environment
Author Council on Environmental Quality
Affiliation Office of the President of the United States
URL http://ceq.eh.doe.gov/reports/1994-95/chap04.pdf
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract This is chapter four of the report, "Environmental Quality: The Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report of the Council on Environmental Quality" and provides a general overview of the issue of population and environment.

Type of Resource Article
Title The Science of Population, Development, and the Environment
Author Robert Engelman and Richard P. Cincotta
Affiliation Population Action International
URL http://www.ucsusa.org/resources/pop.science.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract General discussion addresses: [1] Population and Fertility Trends, [2] A Note On Population Projections, [3] Consequences of Population Growth, [4] Population Growth and Poverty, [5] Population Growth and Food, [6] Population Growth and the Environment, and [7]
Bringing Birth Rates Down. Prepared in 1998 for the Union of Concerned Scientists

Type of Resource General Overview
Title Understanding The Population/Environment Connection
Author Union Of Concerned Scientists
Affiliation Union Of Concerned Scientists
URL http://www.ucsusa.org/resources/population.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Information from the U.S.-based advocacy group on "understanding the population/environment connection." Includes policy, legislation, current issues as well as [1] Frequently Asked Questions about Population, [2] Population Misperceptions: Some Popular Myths Undone, [3] The Science of Population, Development, and the Environment, [4] Recent Developments in Population Research, [5] More Background on Population Policy, and [6] Population Resources on the Web (links).

Type of Resource Book Chapter
Title Population and Environment Relationships in Developing Countries: A Select Review of Approaches and Methods
Author Catherine Marquette and Richard Bilsborrow
Affiliation Christian Michelsen Institute, Norway (Marquette), Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, U.S.A. (Bilsborrow)
URL http://www.cnie.org/pop/marquette/Marque1.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract This 1997 review article describes the "diversity of opinion, theory, and conceptual approaches characterizes discussion of population and environment relationships among social scientists... a series of general recommendations regarding future research are made."

Type of Resource Report
Title The Population-Environment Connection: What Does It Mean for Environmental Policy?
Author Carlyn E. Orians and Marina Skumanich
Affiliation Battelle Seattle Research Center
URL http://www.seattle.battelle.org/services/e&s/pop-env/index.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, this report address population and environmnet linakges in the United States. "It includes a primer on key demographic trends within the U.S. and provides some ideas on the implications of these trends for environmental policy." Here's the Table of Contents:

Executive Summary
Chapter 1 – Population and Environmental Policy - introduction.
Chapter 2 – From Malthus to Cairo - an historical review.
Chapter 3 – Theories and Models - current theoretical perspectives.
Chapter 4 – Demographic Details - a systematic review of demographic conditions and their implications for the environment.
Chapter 5 – Making the Link to the Environment - examples of applying demographic analysis to environmental policy.
Chapter 6 – Getting to Policy   - Summary and thoughts on how to extend our knowledge base.
Chapter 7 – References
Chapter 8 – Suggested Readings

Type of Resource Magazine Article and Interview
Title Now We Are Six, Conversation with Dr. Nafis Sadik
Author Jim Motavalli
Affiliation E/The Environmental Magazine
URL http://www.emagazine.com/july-august_1999/_0799contents.html
Peer Review No
Abstract Areticle and interview from the July-August, 1999 issue of E/The Environmental Magazine.Feature artcle Now We Are Six   asks "In October, World Population Will Reach Six Billion. Can the Earth Carry the Load?" The Conversation with Dr. Nafis Sadik
is an interview with the executive director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) about UN population programs.

Type of Resource Report Chapter
Title U.S. Population and Sustainability
Author President's Council on Sustainability and Development
Affiliation Various
URL http://www.whitehouse.gov/PCSD/Publications/TF_Reports/amer-chap6.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract This is chapter six of the report, "Sustainable America: A New Consensus for the Future" "Population growth, especially when coupled with current consumption patterns, affects sustainability. A sustainable United States is one where all Americans have access to family palnning and reproductive health services, women enjoy increased opportunities for education and employment, and responsible immigration policies are fairly implemented and enforced."


Type of Resource Report
Title World Population: More than Just Numbers
Author Population Reference Bureau
Affiliation Population Reference Bureau
URL http://www.prb.org/pubs/pdf/mtjn.pdf
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract The story of world population includes many statistics—birth rates, death rates, rates of population increase, maternal mortality rates, and so on—but the story first and foremost is about people. This PRB publication provides a quick, clear, and comprehensive discussion of world population trends in the 21st century: the status of women, longer life spans, more young people, environmental degradation, population movements, and population stories from major world regions. (1999)

Type of Resource Article
Title In Focus: Population and Environment
Author Robert Engelman
Affiliation Population Action International
URL http://www.foreignpolicy-infocus.org/briefs/vol4/v4n14pop.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Discusses population trends as these trends relate to environmental degradation, policy issues, governmental assistance, and reproductive decisions. Included is a linklist to additional organizations concerned with population and environment issues . (1999)

Type of Resource Report
Title Household Transportation Use and Urban Air Pollution: A Comparative Analysis of Thailand, Mexico and the United States
Author Roger-Mark De Souza
Affiliation Population Reference Bureau
URL http://www.prb.org/pubs/pdf/mac.pdf
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract This report presents the results of a comparative case-study analysis of the impact of household transportation use on urban air pollution. The case studies were conducted in three cities that are known to have severe transportation-related problems: Bangkok, Mexico City, and Washington, D.C.    Because these cities represent diverse  economic, cultural, political, historical, and developmental contexts, the case studies provide interesting comparisons for understanding consumption and environmental linkages. (1999)

Type of Resource Technical Review Paper
Title Turning but not Toppling Malthus: Boserupian Theory on Population and the Environment Relationships
Author Catherine M. Marquette
Affiliation Christian Michelsen Institute, Bergen, Norway
URL http://www.cnie.org/pop/marquette/marque3.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Working paper which reviews the main points of the work on population-environment relationships of Ester Boserup which "transcend[s] the boundaries"between opposing 'Malthusian' and 'Cornucopian' views. Also reviews the relevance of Boserupian theory to developing regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa and recent interpretations.

Type of Resource Report
Title Plan & Conserve: A Source Book on Linking Population and Environmental Services in Communities
Author Robert Engelman
Affiliation Population Action International (PAI)
URL http://populationaction.org/why_pop/pc_index/pc_index.htm
Peer Review Independent Review Process
Abstract 1998 report by U.S.-based advocacy organization. "This publication:
  • presents the concept of community-based population and environment (CBPE) activities, stressing especially the provision of family planning and related services within that concept;
  • assembles an inventory of projects in developing countries in which organizations and communities are linking natural resource conservation and family planning activities; and
  • distills observations and conclusions garnered by PAI's Population and Environment Program staff in research, project visits, interviews and other exchanges over the past six years. "

Includes project profiles from Nepal, the Philippines, Mexico, Uganda and Mali.

Type of Resource Report
Title Global Environmental Outlook - 1 (1997)
Author United Nations Environment Programme
Affiliation United Nations
URL http://www.grida.no/prog/global/geo1/index.htm
Peer Review External Review Process
Abstract "This first issue of the biennial Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is a snapshot of an ongoing worldwide environmental assessment process. " Includes:

Type of Resource Report
Title Monitoring Environmental Progress
Author The World Bank
Affiliation http://www-esd.worldbank.org/html/esd/env/publicat/mep/mep.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract 1995 report "showcases improvements in Environmentally Sustainable Development Indicators that help to analyze policy-oriented issues. Real improvement will depend on an unprecedented level of collaboration within the international community, dealing with more than indicators. Hence, while this publication is rich in "products" such as new indicators and innovative concepts, it is really about empirical processes." Includes:

Type of Resource Statement
Title Sixteen Myths About Population Growth
Author William N. Ryerson
Affiliation Population Communications International
URL http://www.cnie.org/pop/myth/16myth0.htm
Peer Review No
Abstract Advocacy statement addresses 16 issues under the categories: [1] Misunderstanding the Nature of the Problem, [2] "We should not worry about population growth" [3] Even if we should worry about population growth rates, we cannot limit population growth, and [4] Take care of (fill in the blank) and population will take care of itself." along with statement on "The centrality of motivation" and "Solutions to the population problem."

Type of Resource 2 Reports
Title Population Environment Delphi Reports
Author The Millennium Project
Affiliation American Council for the United Nations University
URL http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/4787/millennium/./issues.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Reports on Population and Environment describe the results of two-rounds of Delphi inquiries, conducted to gather judgements from an international panel consisting of futurists, scholars, and interested participants. In the Population inquiries, participants "were asked to rate some forces that led to the reduction of the world population growth rate from 2.06% in the late 1960s to 1.7% currently and to assess how these forces might change over the next 25 years." In the Environment inquiries, participants addressed "reasons why population growth may led to environmental degradation" and other forces affecting the environment.

Type of Resource Statement
Title Population and the Environment
Affiliation Facing the Future
URL http://www.facingthefuture.org/environment/enviro-index.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Statement on site of U.S. based advocacy group: "As we approach a new millennium, human impacts on the natural world are becoming more apparent and more widespread. Deforestation and desertification are increasing. Farmland is being degraded and paved over, and water polluted. The ozone layer is deteriorating; record-high carbon emissions are contributing to global climate change; and three unique plant, animal or other species are vanishing every hour."