Biodiversity -
Genetic and Species Diversity

Last updated: 04/13/00
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National Library for the Environment
Type of Resource Report
Title Nature's Place: Human Population and the Future of Biological Diversity
Author Richard P. Cincotta and Robert Engelman
Affiliation Population Action International
Url http://www.populationaction.org/pubs/biodiv00/NaturesPlace.pdf
Peer Review External Review Process
Abstract Discusses the impact of population growth on diversity of species throughout the world: "The world's biological wealth is dwindling. Earth—the only location in the universe that we know supports life— is being transformed into a world that is genetically poorer. The loss is irretrievable, and its roots lie in the spectacular success of a single species: us, Homo sapiens. The disappearance of species, proceeding thousands of times faster today than in the pre-human past, is still accelerating and is likely to advance even more rapidly in the 21 st century. "

Type of Resource article
Title How Many Species Are There?
Author World Resources Institute
Affiliation World Resources Institute
Url http://www.wri.org/biodiv/b02-gbs.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "Surprisingly, scientists have a better understanding of how many stars there are in the galaxy than how many species there are on Earth. Estimates of global species diversity have varied from 2 million to 100 million species, with a best estimate of somewhere near 10 million, and only 1.4 million have actually been named. The problems stemming from the limits of current knowledge of species diversity are compounded by the lack of a central database or list of the world's species. "

Type of Resource article
Title Genetic Diversity
Author World Resources Institute
Affiliation World Resources Institute
Url http://www.wri.org/biodiv/gene-div.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "Even if rescued from extinction at the last perilous minute, a species that has been reduced to a fraction of its original population loses much of what once made it unique. In all organisms that reproduce sexually, each individual plant or animal contains a different mix of genes. Known as genetic diversity, this incredible variation within species is what allows populations to adapt to changes in climate and other local environmental conditions. When a species--be it bison, goldfish, or daisies--loses too many individuals, it becomes genetically uniform and far less adaptable."

Type of Resource Report (part of)
Title Biodiversity for food and agriculture
Author Hope Shand
Affiliation Rural Advancement Foundation International
Url http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/EPdirect/EPre0039.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Posted 9 February 1998. "Presents key chapters from "Human Nature", a study prepared for a study prepared for FAO by the Rural Advancement Foundation International. Until recently, agriculture and nature conservation were often seen as being in opposition. Today, there is growing recognition that food security and the conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biological diversity are inextricably linked. The Special covers biodiversity in crops, plants, farm animals, forests, fish and aquatic life, and soil." The full publication is available in Portable Document Format (PDF) at: http://www.rafi.ca/publications/human_nature.html

Type of Resource Bibliography
Title Sustainable Development/Economics-Biodiversity and Wildlife Management Bibliography
Author Tom Tietenberg
Affiliation Colby College
Url http://www.colby.edu/personal/thtieten/biomgmt.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Bibliography on biodiversity and wildlife management, primarily journals and books. They cover such topics as: extinction and market forces, conservation, tourism and coexistence. Specific area/countries referred to include: US, tropics, Zimbabwe, Africa, Kenya and Nigeria.

Type of Resource 19 Articles + Photographs + Glossary
Title Various (see below)
Author World Resources Institute
Affiliation World Resources Institute
Url http://www.wri.org/biodiv/us-laws.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Information from a U.S.-based environmental think tank which describe different aspects of the issue, its programs, and related sites
  1. What is Biodiversity? (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  2. Natural Resources and Biodiversity (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  3. Genetic diversity (Variation Within Species, Problems of Genetic Uniformity,   Understanding Genetic Diversity, Related Links, Source)
  4. Ecosystems and habitats (Elements and Interactions, Ecological Processes,  Ecological Dynamics, Related Links, Source)
  5. The Diversity of Life -- genes, species, and ecosystems
  6. Convention on Biodiversity (Background, WRI Activities at the CBD COP4,  Key Articles and Themes, Supporting the Convention, Related Sites)
  7. Global Biodiversity Forum (GBF Information On-Line, Virtual Global Biodiversity Forum, Background and Purpose, Advisory Mechanism, Contact Information)
  8. Global Biodiversity Strategy (Background, Summary, Strategy information on-line,   Related Links)
  9. Cultural diversity (Cultural and Biological Diversity, Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, Loss of Nature, Loss of Culture, Related Links)
  10. Forest resources
  11. Coastal and marine resources (Biodiversity in Marine Ecosystems, Marine Species Richness and Conservation, Marine Biodiversity, Photos of Coral Reef Species, Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs, Pressures on Marine Biodiversity, Sustainable Marine Resource Management, Drowning the National Heritage: Climate Change and U.S. Coastal Biodiversity, Coastlines at Risk, Tools for Protecting Marine Biodiversity, Information on Coral Reefs: Improving our Knowledge Base)
  12. Bioregional management (Defining a Bioregion, Elements and Dynamics of a Bioregion, Related Links, Source)
  13. Threats to Biodiversity (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  14. Conservation Guidelines (Overview, Policy Information, Facts and Figures)
  15. Agenda 21: Biological Diversity (Overview, Policy Opportunities, References, Other Sources of Information, PDF Version)
  16. Endangered Species Act (Listing Endangered Species, Protecting Endangered Species, Internet Resources)
  17. Federal Laws of the United States Relating to Biodiversity Conservation includes a list of U.S. Biodiversity Laws.
  18. International Environmental Agreements and Conventions
  19. Biological Diversity: What it is and Why it is Important
  20. Biodiversity Glossary of Terms

Type of Resource Database
Title List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature
Author J.P. Euzeby
Affiliation Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, France
Url http://www-sv.cict.fr/bacterio/
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Database includesinformation on bacteria, alphabetically and chronologically, the official nomenclature of bacteria and the nomenclatural changes as cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (2,212 names of genera, species or subspecies, and 124 names of higher taxa.), or published, or validated in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. It is extensively annotated to clarify the Rules which govern the scientific nomenclature.

Type of Resource Statement
Title State of the World: Species Extinctions
Author The Millenium Institute
Affiliation The Millenium Institute
Url http://www.igc.apc.org/millennium/inds/species.html           (Temporarily Unavailable)
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Statement on rate of loss of species on earth based on work of U.S. scientist Peter Raven.

Type of Resource Graph
Title Known Causes of Animal Extinctions since 1600
Author World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Affiliation World Conservation Monitoring Centre
Url http://www.wri.org/wri/enved/trends/for-7f.html         (Temporarily Unavailable)
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Atributes causes of animal extinction to species introduction (39%), habitat destruction (36%), hunting (23%), other 2%

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