Freshwater - General Information

Last updated: 04/13/00
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National Library for the Environment
Type of Resource Press Release (March 18, 1999)
Title Unsafe Water: 3.3 Billion Illnesses and 5.3 Million Deaths Yearly
Price Tab for Safe Water: $US50 to $US105 Per Person
Author Walter Rast, Tore J. Brevik, Robert Bisset, Marshall Hoffman
Affiliation United Nations Environment Program/United Nations University
Url http://www.unep.org/unep/per/ipa/pressrel/r03-1799.001
Peer Review No
Abstract Press Release in advance of World Day for Water, 22 March 1999 which notes that "Clean, safe water can be brought to the 1.4 billion people around the world without it for as little as $US50 per person, which can prevent many of the 3.35 billion cases of illness and 5.3 million deaths caused each year by unsafe water, says a United Nations analysis."

Type of Resource Report
Title Sustaining Water, Easing Scarcity: A Second Update
Author Tom Gardner-Outlaw and Robert Engelman
Affiliation Population Action International
Url http://www.populationaction.org/why_pop/water/water-toc.htm
Peer Review Independent Review Process
Abstract Update for the 1993 report Sustaining Water: Population and the Future of Renewable Water Supplies. Includes:

Type of Resource Report
Title Solutions for a Water-Short World
Author Don Hinrichsen, Bryant Robey, and Ushma D. Upadhyay
Affiliation Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Information Program
Url http://www.jhuccp.org/popreport/m14edsum.stm
Peer Review External Review Process
Abstract December 1997 report concludes that "As populations grow and water use per person rises, demand for freshwater is soaring. Yet the supply of freshwater is finite and threatened by pollution. To avoid a crisis, many countries must conserve water, pollute less, manage supply and demand, and slow population growth." includes :

1.The Coming Water Crisis
2.Water Availability and Use
3.Facing Water Shortages
4.Consequences of Overuse and Pollution
5.The Health Dimension
6.Water Conservation and Management
7.Toward a Blue Revolution

Type of Resource Report
Title Sustaining Water: Population and the Future of Renewable Water Supplies
Author Robert Engelman and Pamela LeRoy
Affiliation Population Action International
Url http://www.cnie.org/pop/pai/h2o-toc.html
Peer Review Independent Peer-Review Process
Abstract Full text of 55-page, 1993 report by U.S.-based advocacy group which addresses fresh water resources and their relationship to population, health and development. Strategies and regional examples are discussed.

Type of Resource Report
Title Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World
Author Report of the Secretary-General
Affiliation United Nations
Url http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/freshwat.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract 1997 report "shows that in many countries, both developing and developed, current pathways for water use are often not sustainable. There is clear and convincing evidence that the world faces a worsening series of local and regional water quantity and quality problems, largely as a result of poor water allocation, wasteful use of the resource, and lack of adequate management action. Water resources constraints and water degradation are weakening one of the resource bases on which human society is built.
2. Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of the population increase during this century, and already a number of regions are chronically water short. About one-third of the world's population lives in countries that are experiencing moderate to high water stress partly resulting from increasing demands from a growing population and human activities. By 2025, as much as 2/3 of the world population would be under stress conditions."

Type of Resource Report
Title Population and Water Resources
Author Food and Agriculture Organization
Affiliation United Nations
Url http://www.undp.org/popin/fao/water.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract 1994 report includes; [1] Introduction, [2] Population dynamics and demand for water ( Domestic and municipal usages, Agricultural usages, Industrial usages, Overall use and competition between sectors), [3] Impact of population on water supply (surface water, groundwater, water pollution), [4] Impact of changes in water supply on population (Water scarcity, Water pollution), [5] Population-water linkages in a policy framework (Policy relevance of the linkages, On analyzing population-water linkages, Factors in water withdrawal, Factors in water pollution, Policy options, Knowledge base and research needs).

Type of Resource Data tables, maps, book summary
Title The World’s Water
Author Peter H. Gleick
Affiliation Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security
Url http://www.worldwater.org/
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Summarizes the contents of the 1998 book: The World’s Water 1998-1999: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources by Peter Glick. Includes water data tables:

and maps:

Tables are downloadable in format for Microsoft Excel.

Type of Resource Article
Title Population and Water
Author National Wildlife Federation Population and Environment Program
Affiliation National Wildlife Federation
Url http://www.nwf.org/international/pop/water.html
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "Water scarcity is reaching alarming dimensions in response to the extremely rapid population growth. One could say that in a medium-term perspective, water will not be easily available to support both the new generations and the socio-economic development being sought after," warns Swedish hydrologist, Malin Falkenmark. Most conservationists and environmentalists endorse this view believing that at current rates of consumption, waste, and mismanagement, water, second only after oxygen for sustenance, will soon become acutely scarce in most part of the world."

Type of Resource Report
Title Water and Population Dynamics
Author Various
Affiliation The World Conservation Union's (IUCN) World Conservation Congress
Url http://www.aaas.org/international/
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract In October 1996, a collaborative initiative and workshop on Water and Population Dynamics was held in Montreal, Canada as part of The World Conservation Union's (IUCN) World Conservation Congress. The summary featured here has been published by Population Reference Bureau, IUCN, and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Includes case studies for Bangladesh, Guatemala, India, Jordan, Mali, Morocco, Pakistan, Southern Africa, Zambia.

Type of Resource Report Chapter
Title Monitoring Environmental Progress: How Can We Monitor Air and Water?
Author The World Bank
Affiliation The World Bank
Url http://www-esd.worldbank.org/html/esd/env/publicat/mep/mep07.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract 1995 report "showcases improvements in Environmentally Sustainable Development indicators that help to analyze policy-oriented issues. Chapter on How Can We Monitor Air and Water? includes:
  • Pollution Effects
  • Air Pollution and Respiratory Disease
  • Exposure to Lead
  • Scope for Improvement
  • Access to Safe Water
  • Toward Improved Indicators
  • Directions for Further Work

National Council for Science and the Environment
"Improving the scientific basis for making decisions on environmental issues"
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Phone: (202) 530-5810 Fax: (202) 628-4311 [email protected]