POPULATION & ENVIRONMENT LINKAGES SERVICE
Freshwater Policies

Last updated: 04/13/00
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National Library for the Environment

The various policy decisions on local, state, national and international levels that ameliorate the interaction between population and freshwater environments.


Type of Resource Treaty Chapter
Title Agenda 21: Chapter 18.Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:  application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources
Author United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Affiliation United Nations
Url http://www.cnie.org/agenda21/a21-18.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract Text of Chapter 18 of the Treaty adopted at the 1992 United Nations Confrence on Environment and Development (UNCED - the "Earth Summit") in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Type of Resource Report Chapter
Title Strategies (from "Sustaining Water")
Author Robert Engleman and Pamela LeRoy
Affiliation Population Action International
Url http://www.cnie.org/pop/pai/water-26.html
Peer Review Independent Peer-Review Process
Abstract Part of a 1993 report by a U.S.-based advocacy group which addresses fresh water resources and their relationship to population, health and development. Strategies and regional examples are discussed.

Type of Resource Article
Title Is Agriculture Raiding South Asia's Water Supplies? Water Scarcity and Water Reform in South Asia
Author 2020 VISION News & Views, April 1995
Affiliation International Food Policy Research Institute
Url http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/2020/newslet/nv_0495/nv_0495a.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "Water is increasingly scarce around the world. In South Asia, where half of the world's poor live, international water conflicts are brewing and riots over water are taking place with increasing frequency. Many researchers, environmentalists, and others believe that agriculture is using more than its fair share of the resource. Around the world and in South Asia, agriculture, on average, uses about 80 percent of the water supply in a given country."

Type of Resource Article
Title Unless Water Policies Are Reformed, Water Scarcity Could Pose a Major Obstacle to Feeding the World
Author 2020 VISION News & Views, March 1997
Affiliation International Food Research Policy Institute
Url http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/2020/newslet/nv_0397/nv_0397b.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "Water scarcity could become one of the main obstacles to feeding the world unless urgently needed policy reforms are made, according to a new 2020 Vision discussion paper. While water supplies are dwindling because of groundwater depletion, waste, and pollution, demand is rising fast. Between 1950 and 1990, water use increased by more than 100 percent in North and South America, by more than 300 percent in Africa, and by almost 500 percent in Europe."

Type of Resource Journal Paper
Title The Human Right to Water
Author Peter Gleick
Affiliation Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment and Security
Url www.pacinst.org/gleickrw.pdf
Peer Review Independent Peer Review Process
Abstract The paper argues that a human right to adequate supplies of fresh water can be derived from principles of customary international law and international treaty regimes.

Type of Resource Article
Title Policy Changes Needed to Meet Threats to Land and Water
Author 2020 VISION News & Views, July 1995
Affiliation International Food Policy Research Institute
Url http://www.cgiar.org/ifpri/2020/newslet/nv_0795/nv_0795e.htm
Peer Review Unknown Review Process
Abstract "Soil and water are the basic natural resources on which agriculture depends, and both are expected to come under serious pressure as the world population rises toward a projected total of 8 billion over the next 25 years. As the demand for water mounts, competition for water among agricultural, industrial, and residential purposes will increase within countries, and tensions between countries that share water basins could escalate into open conflict."

Type of Resource 32 Nontechnical Reports
Title Briefing Reports on Issues Related to Water Policy
Author Various
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/crsh2o.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract Reports are produced as nonpartisan briefing documents for the U.S. Congress.

diamond.gif (870 bytes) Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations (12/9/99~25p.) 205K
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues (10/15/99~15 p. in 2 sections)
Western Water Resource Issues (10/15/99~14p. in 3 sections)
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act (10/15/99 ~ 17p.in 3 sections)
Clean Water Act Reauthorization (10/15/99~13p.)
Water Resource Issues in the 106th Congress (8/4/99~4p.)

The Clean Water Initiative (5/3/99~5 p.)
Desalination R & D: The New Federal Program (2/18/99~6p.)
Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development (9/24/99~16p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182 (2/8/99~ 6p.)
Clean Water Action Plan: Budgetary Initiatives (2/2/99 ~ 5p.)
Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information (1/20/99 ~ 6p.)
Wastewater Treatment: Overview and Background (1/20/99 ~ 6p.)
Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law (1/20/99~11p.)
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress (11/25/98~5p.)
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Status and Issues (11/18/98~5p.)
Clean Water Act Reauthorization In the 105th Congress (10/21/98~10 p.in 2 sections)
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues (10/4/98~5p.)
Soil and Water Conservation: Implementing the 1996 Farm Bill and Other Issues (7/6/98 ~ 13 p.)
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program (6/10/98~6p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program (6/4/98~6p.)
Clean Water Act and TMDLs (9/11/97~7p.)
Clean Water Issues in the 105th Congress (8/21/97 ~ 5 p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementing the 1986 Amendments (12/3/96 ~ 13 p.)
Energy and Water Development: Appropriations for FY1997 (10/8/96 ~ p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues (6/20/96 ~ 6 p.)
Great Lakes Water Quality: Current Issues (5/17/96 ~ 6 p.)
Proposed Changes to the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: H.R.2738 (4/12/96 ~ 75 p.)
Reinventing the Environmental Protection Agency and EPA's Water Programs (3/22/96 ~ 16 p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Ammendments of 1995: Overview of S. 1316, as Passed (12/18/95 ~ 6 p.)
Dioxin: Reassessing the Risk (10/24/95 ~ 6 p.)
San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues (7/18/95 ~ 6 p.)
Wastewater Treatment: Overview and Background (6/7/95 ~ 6 p.)
Clean Water: Summary of H.R.961 , as Passed (5/30/95 ~ 21 p.)
Flow Control of Solid Waste: Issues and Options (5/16/95 ~ 15 p.)
Implications of Linking Clean Water Spending to the Rate of Inflation (1/12/95 ~ 11 p.)
Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress (12/1/94 ~ 5 p.)
Legal Issues Related to Livestock Water in Federal Grazing Districts (8/30/94 ~ 79 p.)
PUD No. 1 of Jefferson County v. Washington Department of Ecology:
An Expansive Interpretation of State Authority under the Clean Water Act (7/28/94 ~ 13 p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1994: Summary of S.2019, as Passed (7/28/94 ~ 20 p.)
Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues (9/21/93 ~ 12 p.)


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