POPULATION & ENVIRONMENT LINKAGES SERVICE
Freshwater - Pollution

Last updated: 04/13/00
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National Library for the Environment

How population effects the quality of water through contamination and pollution and how water quality effects the ability to support human populations.


Type of Resource Report (part of)
Title Pollution and Disease
Author Robert Engleman and Pamela LeRoy
Affiliation Population Action International
Url http://www.cnie.org/pai/pop/water-21.html
Peer Review Independent Peer-Review Process
Abstract Part of a 1993 report by a U.S.-based advocacy group which addresses fresh water resources and their relationship to population, health and development. Strategies and regional examples are discussed.

Type of Resource Nontechnical Report
Title Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act
Author Claudia Copeland
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/h2o-15.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1998 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress. "The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or Clean Water Act, is the principal law governing pollution in the nation's streams, lakes, and estuaries. Originally enacted in 1948, it was totally revised by amendments in 1972 (P.L. 92-500) that gave the Act its current form and spelled out ambitious programs for water quality improvements that are now being put in place by industries and cities. Congress made certain fine-tuning amendments in 1977 (P.L. 95-217) and 1981 (P.L. 97-117). The Act consists of two major parts: regulatory provisions that impose progressively more stringent requirements on industries and cities in order to meet the statutory goal of zero discharge of pollutants, and provisions that authorize federal financial assistance for municipal wastewater treatment construction."

Type of Resource Nontechnical Report
Title Clean Water Act and TMDLs
Author Claudia Copeland
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/pop-1.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract 1997 report prepared as a briefing document for the U.S. Congress."Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time."

Type of Resource 32 Nontechnical Reports
Title Briefing Reports on Issues Related to Water Policy
Author Various
Affiliation Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Url http://www.cnie.org/nle/crsh2o.html
Peer Review Internal Review Process
Abstract Reports are produced as nonpartisan briefing documents for the U.S. Congress.

diamond.gif (870 bytes) Water Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations (12/9/99~25p.) 205K
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues (10/15/99~15 p. in 2 sections)
Western Water Resource Issues (10/15/99~14p. in 3 sections)
Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act (10/15/99 ~ 17p.in 3 sections)
Clean Water Act Reauthorization (10/15/99~13p.)
Water Resource Issues in the 106th Congress (8/4/99~4p.)

The Clean Water Initiative (5/3/99~5 p.)
Desalination R & D: The New Federal Program (2/18/99~6p.)
Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development (9/24/99~16p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182 (2/8/99~ 6p.)
Clean Water Action Plan: Budgetary Initiatives (2/2/99 ~ 5p.)
Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information (1/20/99 ~ 6p.)
Wastewater Treatment: Overview and Background (1/20/99 ~ 6p.)
Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law (1/20/99~11p.)
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress (11/25/98~5p.)
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Status and Issues (11/18/98~5p.)
Clean Water Act Reauthorization In the 105th Congress (10/21/98~10 p.in 2 sections)
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues (10/4/98~5p.)
Soil and Water Conservation: Implementing the 1996 Farm Bill and Other Issues (7/6/98 ~ 13 p.)
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program (6/10/98~6p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program (6/4/98~6p.)
Clean Water Act and TMDLs (9/11/97~7p.)
Clean Water Issues in the 105th Congress (8/21/97 ~ 5 p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementing the 1986 Amendments (12/3/96 ~ 13 p.)
Energy and Water Development: Appropriations for FY1997 (10/8/96 ~ p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues (6/20/96 ~ 6 p.)
Great Lakes Water Quality: Current Issues (5/17/96 ~ 6 p.)
Proposed Changes to the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: H.R.2738 (4/12/96 ~ 75 p.)
Reinventing the Environmental Protection Agency and EPA's Water Programs (3/22/96 ~ 16 p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Ammendments of 1995: Overview of S. 1316, as Passed (12/18/95 ~ 6 p.)
Dioxin: Reassessing the Risk (10/24/95 ~ 6 p.)
San Diego Wastewater Treatment: Current Issues (7/18/95 ~ 6 p.)
Wastewater Treatment: Overview and Background (6/7/95 ~ 6 p.)
Clean Water: Summary of H.R.961 , as Passed (5/30/95 ~ 21 p.)
Flow Control of Solid Waste: Issues and Options (5/16/95 ~ 15 p.)
Implications of Linking Clean Water Spending to the Rate of Inflation (1/12/95 ~ 11 p.)
Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress (12/1/94 ~ 5 p.)
Legal Issues Related to Livestock Water in Federal Grazing Districts (8/30/94 ~ 79 p.)
PUD No. 1 of Jefferson County v. Washington Department of Ecology:
An Expansive Interpretation of State Authority under the Clean Water Act (7/28/94 ~ 13 p.)
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1994: Summary of S.2019, as Passed (7/28/94 ~ 20 p.)
Toxic Pollutants and the Clean Water Act: Current Issues (9/21/93 ~ 12 p.)


National Council for Science and the Environment
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